University Physics 7 th EDITION SEAR/ZEMANSKY/YOUNG  PART II ไฟฟ้า
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University Physics PART I กลศาสตร์

7 th EDITION

SEAR/ZEMANSKY/YOUNG

 หน้า PART ONE MECHANICS AND FUNDAMENTALS 1 1 UNIT , PHYSICAL QUANTITIES , AND VECTORS 3 1-1 Introduction 3 1-2 Standards and units 4 1-3 Unit consistency and conversions 7 1-4 Precision and significant figures 8 1-5 Estimates and orders of magnitude 9 1-6 Vectors and vector addition 10 1-7 Components of vectors 13 1-8 Unit vectors 15 1-9 Products of vectors 16 Summary 19 2 MOTION ALONG A STRAIGHT LINE 25 2-1 Average velocity 25 2-2 Instantaneous velocity 26 2-3 Average and instantaneous acceleration 28 2-4 Motion with constant acceleration 32 2-5 Velocity and coordinate by integration 34 2-6 Freely falling bodies 36 2-7 Relative velocity 39 Summary 41 3 MOTION IN PLANE 49 3-1 Average and instantaneous velocity 49 3-2 Average and instantaneous acceleration 51 3-3 Components of acceleration 51 3-4 Projectile motion 54 3-5 Circular motion 61 3-6 Relative velocity 63 Summary 65 4 NEWTON'S LAWS OF MOTIONS 71 4-1 Force 71 4-2 Equilibrium and Newton's first law 74 4-3 Mass and Newton's second law 75 4-4 Systems of units 78 4-5 Mass and weight 80 4-6 Newton's third law 81 4-7 Applications of Newton's laws 83 4-8 Inertial frames of reference 85 Summary 86 5 APPLICATIONS OF NEWTON'S LAWS-I 90 5-1 Force in nature 90 5-2 Contact forces and friction 92 5-3 Equlibrium of a particle 96 5-4 Applications of Newton's second law 101 Summary 109 6 APPLICATIONS OF NEWTON'S LAWS-II 119 6-1 Force in circular motion 119 6-2 Motion in a vertical circle 123 6-3 Newton's law of gravitation 125 6-4 Gravitational field 129 6-5 Satellite motion 130 6-6 Effect of the earth's rotation on g 134 Summary 137 PART TWO MECHANICS-FURTHER DEVELOPMENTS 7 WORK AND ENERGY 145 7-1 Conservation of energy 145 7-2 Work 146 7-3 Work done by a varying force 148 7-4 Work and kinetic energy 152 7-5 Gravitation potential energy 154 7-6 Elastic potential energy 161 7-7 Conservative and dissipative forces 165 7-8 Internal work and energy 166 7-9 Power 168 7-10 Automotive power 170 Summary 172 8 IMPULSE AND MOMENTUM 182 8-1 Impulse and momentum 182 8-2 Conservation of momentum 187 8-3 Collisions 189 8-4 Inelastic collisions 190 8-5 Elastic collisions 192 8-6 Recoil 196 8-7 Center of mass 197 8-8 Rocket ptopulsion 199 Summary 202 9 ROTATION MOTION 210 9-1 Angular velocity 210 9-2 Angular acceleration 211 9-3 Rotation with constant angular acceleration 212 9-4 Rotation between angular and linear velocity and acceleration 213 9-5 Kinetic energy of rotation 215 9-6 Moment-of-inertia calculations 218 9-7 Parallel-axis theorem 221 9-8 Torque 222 9-9 Torque and angular acceleration 224 9-10 Work and power in rotational motion 227 9-11 Rotation about a moving axis 229 9-12 Angular momentum and angular impulse 231 9-13 Conservation of angular momentum 233 9-14 Vector representation of angular quantities 235 Summary 238 10 EQUILIBRIUM OF A RIGID BODY 249 10-1 The second condition for equilibrium 249 10-2 Center of gravity 250 10-3 Examples 252 10-4 Couples 256 Summary 257 11 PERIODIC MOTION 263 11-1 Basic concepts 263 11-2 Equations of simple harmonic motion 265 11-3 Circle of reference 273 11-4 Angular simple harmonic motion 275 11-5 The simple pendulum 276 11-6 The physical pendulum 277 11-7 Damped oscillations 279 11-8 Forced oscillations 280 Summary 282 PART THREE MECHANICS AND THERMAL PROPERTIES OF MATTER 12 ELASTICITY 291 12-1 Tensile stress and strain 291 12-2 Bulk stress and strain 294 12-3 Shear stress and strain 297 12-4 Elasticity and plasticity 299 Summary 301 13 FLUID MECHANICS 306 13-1 Density 306 13-2 Pressure in a fluid 307 13-3 Buoyancy 311 13-4 Surface tension 313 13-5 Fluid flow 317 13-6 Bernoulli's equation 320 13-7 Application of Bernoulli's equation 322 13-8 Viscosity 325 13-9 Turbulence 329 Summary 331 14 TEMPERATURE AND EXPANSION 340 14-1 Temperature and thermal equilibrium 340 14-2 Thermometers 342 14-3 The Celsius and Fahrenheit scales 344 14-4 The Kelvin and Rankines scales 346 14-5 Thermal expansion 347 14-6 Thermal stresses 351 Summary 352 15 QUANTITY OF HEAT 357 15-1 Heat transfer 357 15-2 Quantity of heat 358 15-3 Heat capacity 359 15-4 Measurement of hrat capacity 362 15-5 Phase changes 363 15-6 Examples 367 Summary 369 16 MECHANISMS OF HEAT TRANSFER 374 16-1 Conduction 374 16-2 Convection 379 16-3 Radiation 381 16-4 Solar energy and resource conservation 383 Summary 384 17 THERMAL PROPERTIES OF MATTER 389 17-1 Equation of state 389 17-2 Ideal gases 390 17-3 PV=diagrams 394 17-4 Phase diagrams , Triple point , critical point 395 Summary 399 18 THE FIRST LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS 403 18-1 Energy , heat , and work 403 18-2 Work done during volume changes 404 18-3 Heat transfer during volume changes 406 18-4 Internal energy and the first law 408 18-5 Thermodynamic processes 412 18-6 Internal energy of an ideal gas 413 18-7 Heat capacity of an ideal gas 414 18-8 Adibatic processes for an ideal gas 417 Summary 419 19 THE SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS 424 19-1 Directions of thermodynamic processes 424 19-2 Heat engines 426 19-3 Internal-combustion engines 429 19-4 Refrigerators 431 19-5 The second law of thermodynamics 433 19-6 The Carnot cycle 435 19-7 Entropy 440 19-8 The Kelvin temperature scale 444 19-9 Energy conversion 445 Summary 447 20 MOLECULAR PROPERTIES OF MATTER 451 20-1 Molecular structure of matter 451 20-2 Avogadro's number 453 20-3 Molecular basis of properties of matter 454 20-4 Kinetic-molecular theory of an ideal gas 455 20-5 Molar heat capacity of a gas 460 20-6 Distribution of molecular speeds 462 20-7 Crystals 464 20-8 Heat capacity of crystals 467 Summary 468 PART FOUR WAVES 21 MECHANICAL WAVES 475 21-1 Mechanical wave phenomena 475 21-2 Periodic waves 476 24-3 Mathematical description of a wave 478 24-4 Speed of a trasverse wave 481 21-5 Speed of a longitudinal wave 486 21-6 Sound waves in gases 489 21-7 Energy in wave motion 490 Summary 492 22 ViBRATING BODIES 496 22-1 Boundary conditions for a string 496 22-2 Superposition and standing waves 498 22-3 Normal modes of a string 500 22-4 Longitudinal standing waves 503 22-5 Normal modes of organ pipes 504 22-6 Interference of waves 505 22-7 Resonance 506 Summary 508 23 ACOUSTIC PHENOMENA 512 23-1 Sound waves 512 23-2 Intensity 514 23-3 Beats 517 23-4 The Doppler effect 518 Summary 522
 PART FIVE ELECTROSTATICS AND ELECTRIC CURRENTS 24 COULOMB'S LAW 529 24-1 Electric charge 529 24-2 Atomic structure 530 24-3 Electric conductors and insulators 532 24-4 Charging by induction 533 24-5 Coulomb's law 534 24-6 Applications of coulomb's law 537 Summary 541
 25 THE ELECTRIC FIELD 546 25-1 Electric field and electrical forces 546 25-2 Electric-field calculations 551 25-3 Field lines 556 25-4 Gauss's law 557 25-5 Applications of Gauss's law 561 25-6 Charges on conductors 566 Summary 568 26 ELECTRICAL POTENTIAL 575 26-1 Electrical potential energy 575 26-2 Potential 580 26-3 Calculation of potentials 583 26-4 Equipotential surfaces 587 26-5 Potential gradient 589 26-6 The Milikan oil-drop experiment 591 26-7 The electronvolt 593 26-8 The cathode-ray tube 594 Summary 597 27 CAPACITANCE AND DIELECTRICS 604 27-1 Capacitors 604 27-2 The parallel-plate capacitor 605 27-3 Capacitors in series and parallel 607 27-4 Energy of a charged capacitor 609 27-5 Effect of a dielectric 611 27-6 Molecular model of induced charge 615 27-7 Gauss's law in dielectrics 617 Summary 618 28 CURRENT , RESISTANCE , AND ELECTROMOTIVE FORCE 625 28-1 Current 625 28-2 Resistivity 628 28-3 Resistance 630 28-4 Electromotive force and circuits 632 28-5 Current-voltage relations 639 28-6 Energy and power in electric circuits 640 28-7 Theory of metallic conduction 644 Summary 646 29 DIRECT-CURRENT CIRCUITS 653 29-1 Resistors in series and parallel 653 29-2 Kirchhoff's rules 656 29-3 Electrical instruments 659 29-4 The R-C series circuit 662 29-5 Displacement current 666 29-6 Power distribution systems 667 Summary 670 PART SIX ELECTRODYNAMICS 30 MAGNETIC FIELDS AND MAGNETIC FORCES 683 30-1 Magnetism 683 30-2 Magnetic field 684 30-3 Magnetic field lines and magnetic flux 688 30-4 Motion of charged particles in a magnetic field 690 30-5 Thomson's measurement of e/m 692 30-6 Isotopes and mass spectroscopy 693 30-7 Magnetic force on a conductor 695 30-8 Force and torque on a current loop 697 30-9 The direct-current motor 702 30-10 The Hall effect 703 Summary 704 31 SOURCE OF MAGNETIC FIELD 714 31-1 Magnetic field of a moving charge 714 31-2 Magnetic field of a current element 717 31-3 Magnetic field of a long straight conductor 719 31-4 Force between parallel conductors 721 31-5 Magnetic field of a circular loop 722 31-6 Ampere's law 724 31-7 Applications of Ampere's law 726 31-8 Magnetic materials 728 31-9 Magnetic field and displacement current 730 Summary 732 32 ELECTROMAGNETIC INDUCTION 742 32-1 Induction phenomena 742 32-2 Motional electromotive force 743 32-3 Faraday's law 748 32-4 Induced electric fields 752 32-5 Lenz's law 754 32-6 Eddy currents 756 32-7 Maxwell's equations 757 Summary 759 33 INDUCTANCE 767 33-1 Mutual inductance 767 33-2 Self-inductance 769 33-3 Energy in an inductor 771 33-4 The R-L circuit 773 33-5 The L-C circuit 775 33-6 The L-R-C circuit 778 Summary 780 34 ALTERNATING CURRENTS 788 34-1 ac sources and phasors 788 34-2 Resistance , inductance , and capacitance 789 34-3 The L-R-C series circuit 793 34-4 Average and root-mean-square values 797 34-5 Power in ac circuits 798 34-6 Series resonance 800 34-7 Parallel resonance 803 34-8 Transformers 804 Summary 806 35 ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES 813 35-1 Introduction 813 35-2 Speed of electromagnetic wave 815 35-3 Energy in electromagnetic waves 817 35-4 Electromagnetic waves in matter 820 35-5 Sinusoidal waves 821 35-6 Standing waves 824 35-7 The electromagnetic spectrum 826 35-8 Radiation from an antenna 828 Summary 829 PART SEVEN OPTICS 36 THE NATURE AND PROPAGATION OF LIGHT 837 36-1 Nature of light 837 36-2 Sources of light 838 36-3 The speed of light 839 36-4 Waves , wave fronts , and rays 840 36-5 Reflection and refraction 841 36-6 Total internal reflection 845 36-7 Dispersion 847 36-8 Polarization 848 36-9 Polarizing filters 850 36-10 Sacttering of light 854 36-11 Circular and elliptical polarization 855 36-12 Huygens' principle 857 Summary 860 37 IMAGES FORMED BY A SINGLE SURFACE 868 37-1 Reflection at a plane surface 868 37-2 Reflection at a spherical surface 870 37-3 Focus and focal length 874 37-4 Graphical methods 875 37-5 Refraction at a plane surface 877 37-6 Refraction at a spherical surface 879 Summary 882 38 LENSES AND OPTICAL INSTRUMENTS 887 38-1 The thin lens 887 38-2 Diverging lenses 889 38-3 Graphical methods 890 38-4 Images as objects 893 38-5 Lens aberrations 895 38-6 The eye 897 38-7 Defects of vision 898 38-8 The magnifier 899 38-9 The camera 900 38-10 The Projector 901 38-11 The compound microscope 902 38-12 Telescopes 903 Summary 905 39 INTERFERENCE AND DIFFRACTION 913 39-1 Interference and coherent sources 913 39-2 Two-source interference 917 39-3 Intensity distribution in interference patterns 919 39-4 Interference in thin films 922 39-5 The Michelson interferometer 926 39-6 Fresnel diffraction 928 39-7 Fraunhofer diffraction from a single slit 930 39-8 The diffraction grating 934 39-9 X-ray diffraction 938 39-10 Circular apertures and resolving power 939 39-11 Holography 943 Summary 945 PART EIGHT MODERN PHYSICS 40 RELATIVISTIC MECHANICS 955 40-1 Invariance of physical laws 955 40-2 Relative nature of simultaneity 958 40-3 Relativity of time 958 40-4 Relativity of length 961 40-5 The Lorentz transformation 963 40-6 Momentum 966 40-7 Work and energy 967 40-8 Invariance 970 40-9 The Doppler effect 971 40-10 Relativity and newtonian mechanics 973 Summary 974 41 PHOTON , ELECTRON , AND ATOMS 980 41-1 Emission and absorption of light 980 44-2 The photoelectric effect 982 41-3 Line spectra 985 41-4 Energy levels 988 41-5 Atomic spectra 989 41-6 The laser 992 41-7 Continuous spectra 994 41-8 X-ray production and scattering 996 Summary 1002 42 QUANTUM MECHANICS 1007 42-1 The Bohr atom 1007 42-2 Wave nature of particles 1012 42-3 The electron microscope 1016 42-4 Probability and uncertainty 1019 42-5 Wave functions 1024 42-6 The Zeeman effect 1026 42-7 Electron spin 1028 Summary 1030 43 ATOM , MOLECULES , AND SOLIDS 1036 43-1 The exclusion principle 1036 43-2 Atomic structure 1039 43-3 Diatomic molecules 1041 43-4 Molecule spectra 1043 43-5 Structure of solids 1045 43-6 Properties of solids 1047 43-7 Band theory of solids 1049 43-8 Semiconductors 1051 43-9 Semiconductor devices 1052 43-10 Superconductivity 1055 Summary 1056 44 NUCLEAR AND HIGH-ENERGY PHYSICS 1060 44-1 The nuclear atom 1060 44-2 Properties of nuclei 1062 44-3 Nuclear stability 1067 44-4 Radioactive transformations 1069 44-5 Nuclear reactions 1074 44-6 Nuclear fission 1076 44-7 Nuclear fusion 1079 44-8 Particle accelerators 1081 44-9 Fundamental particles 1084 44-10 High-energy physics 1086 Summary 1091 APPENDIXES A The international system of units 1121 B Useful mathematical relations 1124 C The Greek alphabet 1126 D Periodic table of the elements 1127 E Unit conversion factors 1128 F Numerical constants 1129 ANSWERS TO ODD-NUMBERED PROBLEMS INDEX

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